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Iodine deficiency can lead to various signs and symptoms, particularly affecting thyroid function. Here are the explanations for the mentioned points along with some references:

  1. Estrogen dominance: Iodine plays a crucial role in the regulation of estrogen levels in the body. Deficiency in iodine can contribute to estrogen dominance, which refers to an imbalance between estrogen and progesterone levels. This imbalance may lead to symptoms such as weight gain, mood swings, and hormonal disturbances. Iodine supplementation can help regulate estrogen levels and support detoxification processes.
  2. High cortisol levels: Iodine is involved in the regulation of cortisol, the primary stress hormone. Cortisol dysregulation can occur in iodine-deficient individuals, leading to elevated cortisol levels and potential symptoms of chronic stress. Adequate iodine intake helps maintain cortisol balance in the body.
  3. Hypothyroidism: Iodine deficiency is a known cause of hypothyroidism, a condition characterized by an underactive thyroid gland. Hypothyroidism can manifest with symptoms like neck swelling, weight gain, dry hair and skin, thinning hair, and constipation. Iodine is essential for the production of thyroid hormones, and its deficiency can impair thyroid function.
  4. Soy product side effects: Soy products contain compounds known as goitrogens that can interfere with iodine absorption and utilization. In individuals with iodine deficiency, consuming soy products may exacerbate thyroid-related issues. Adequate iodine intake helps counteract the potential negative effects of soy consumption on thyroid health.
  5. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: Hashimoto’s is an autoimmune condition that affects the thyroid gland. While excess iodine may worsen Hashimoto’s in some cases, it is important to note that iodine is still necessary for thyroid function in individuals with this condition. However, iodine supplementation should be done under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as excess iodine can trigger or exacerbate Hashimoto’s symptoms. Additionally, other nutrients like selenium, zinc, vitamin D, and myo-inositol may also play a role in managing Hashimoto’s.


  • Abraham, G.E. (2004). The historical background of the iodine project. The Original Internist, 11(2), 57-66.
  • Pearce, E.N. (2012). Iodine deficiency in children. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 97(4), 817-828.
  • Leung, A.M., & Braverman, L.E. (2014). Consequences of excess iodine. Nature Reviews Endocrinology, 10(3), 136-142.
  • Zimmermann, M.B. (2009). Iodine deficiency. Endocrine Reviews, 30(4), 376-408.
  • Nordio, M., & Pajalich, R. (2013). Combined treatment with myo-inositol and selenium ensures euthyroidism in subclinical hypothyroidism patients with autoimmune thyroiditis. Journal of Thyroid Research, 2013, 1-6.