स्वास्थ्य सम्बन्धी सम्पूर्ण जानकारी

جميع المعلومات المتعلقة بالصحة

Lahat ng impormasyong may kaugnayan sa kalusugan

स्वास्थ्य संबंधी सारी जानकारी

Semua maklumat berkaitan kesihatan

ကျန်းမာရေးဆိုင်ရာ အချက်အလက်အားလုံး


Dhammaan macluumaadka la xiriira caafimaadka

स्वास्थ्यसम्बद्धाः सर्वाणि सूचनानि

Alle gezondheidsgerelateerde informative

Tota la informació relacionada amb la salut

ሁሉም ከጤና ጋር የተያያዙ መረጃዎች


صحت سے متعلق تمام معلومات

Mọi thông tin liên quan đến sức khỏe

The Health Thread Logo

The Health Thread

Prevention of Cyberbullying in Nepal

Dr. Kishor Adhikari

Written By Sonika Parajuli, Bachelor of Arts in Social work, 4th year  ( Major – Psychology ) Xavier International College

Sabina Maharjan

Reviewed by Sabina Maharjan, Clinical Psychologist(M.Phil, IOM TUTH), Bsc Nurse


Cyberbullying, a new form of bullying has been defined as “willful and repeated harm inflicted through aggressive actions through the use of computers, cell phones, and other electronic devices.” (Hutson, 2016, p. 13). It is important to know that cyberbullying can happen to anyone. Relatively little can be said about a typical cyber target or a typical cyberbully: they can be rich kids or poor kids, left-out kids or popular ones, A-students or struggling students, majority or minority students, someone who has been bullied before of someone who rarely uses technology, it can be someone who uses technology to pass their free time by browsing and chatting, but also someone who mostly uses it for online learning, research, time management or school.

Some of the World wide data:

According to a report by National Information Technology, Centre, more than 1,000 cases of cybercrime were reported in Nepal in 2020. The most common forms of online harassment and cyberbullying include cyberstalking, revenge porn, online scheming, online shaming and trolling. Cyberbullying behaviours are not limited to name-calling; they can include other forms of teasing, defamation, intimidation, rumour spreading, displaying unflattering or compromising photos without consent, hacking into individual’s computer, spreading virus. (Aricak et al., 2008).

There are several forms of cyberbullying including:

  • Flaming- It involves sending angry or vulgar messages to an individual or group.
  • Harassment- The act of sending insulting messages, making threats, stalking, or engaging in other forms of unwelcome communication or conduct to an individual.
  • Denigration- This means sending untrue or unkind statements about someone to other people.
  • Cyberstalking- Threatening to harm someone or using intimidation tactics is known as cyberstalking.
  • Masquerading- The process of impersonating someone and sending information that puts that person in danger or casts them in a negative light is called masquerading.
  • Outing and trickery- accessing embarrassing information about an individual and releasing it to the public.
  • Exclusion- It involves purposefully excluding an individual from an online platform.
  • Catfishing- an individual creates a fabricated identity on the internet with the aim of manipulating and harming a victim through various means, often by exploiting the victim’s emotions.
  • Cyberflashing- When an individual receives sexually explicit image without their consent, they have experienced cyber flashing. This can happen through peer-tp-peer Wi-Fi networks or Bluetooth Airdrop, both within and outside of school settings.
  • Ghosting- When individuals stop talking to someone online without explanation, it is called ghosting. Frequently, instead if directly addressing the matter, individuals opt to simply ignore the person they are targeting.
  • Griefing- The repetitive behaviour of intentionally bothering or annoying others by deliberately eliminating your character, steal your game possessions, or harass you through chat is called griefing.
  • Hate pages- On social media platforms like Instagram, teens make fake accounts to bully others. They post embarrassing photos, share secrets, or spreads mean messages. This is called hate pages.
  • Outing- This happens when someone shares another person’s gender identity or sexual orientation without their permission. It is especially harmful for teens who already struggle with mental health and may be more likely to harm themselves.

According to Stop Bullying (2020), the following are the most common places where cyberbullying occurs:

  • Social Media, such as Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat, and Tik Tok
  • Text messaging and messaging apps on mobile or tablet devices.
  • Instant messaging, direct messaging, online chatting over the internet.
  • Online forums, chat rooms, and message boards, such as Reddit.
  • Online gaming communities.

Cyberbullying can take many forms. It can include harassment (insults or threats), spreading rumours, impersonation, outing and trickery (gaining an individual’s trust and then using online media to distribute their secrets) or exclusion (excluding an individual from activities). These activities can be performed via e-mail, instant messaging, text message, social networking sites such as Facebook or Tumblr, and other websites (Peebles E.,2014).

Short Message Service (SMS), which is more commonly known as text messaging, is also a vehicle for cyberbullying. Text messaging appears to be the most widely used platform for cyberbullying among middle and high school students, followed by online gaming (Smith et al., 2008). DePaolis and Williford (2015), found that 11% of elementary school children under the age of ten reported weekly victimization through online gaming. The social media sites used for 8 cyber victimization included Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. The least utilized platforms for cyberbullying included instant messaging, email, and chat rooms.

Some References of Case Studies of Nepal

One of the disturbing cases was of Goma Karki, a 16-year-old girl from Nepal, who committed suicide after discovering someone had created a fake Facebook account in her name and posted offensive content. Goma’s family filed a complaint with the Cyber Crime Bureau, which tracked the cell phone number used to create the account and arrested Yubaraj Karki, who confessed to creating the fake profile.

  • Rita Khadka’s Facebook account was compromised in August 2019. She didn’t learn about it until her friends alerted her to the pornographic photographs being shared from her account. She quickly reported the posts to Nepal Police’s cybercrime division and deleted them from her account.
  • According to a study by the Nepal Telecommunications Authority, 26% of students in Kathmandu reported experiencing cyber bullying.

How does Cyberbullying occur?

The exact reason of why people do cyberbullying is unknown.

  • Lack of empathy.
  • A desire for power and control.
  • To take revenge
  • Peer pressure
  • Deficient digital communication skills
  • Escapism, which according to Cambridge dictionary mean a way of avoiding an unpleasant or boring life, especially by thinking, reading, etc. about more exciting but impossible activities.
  • Seeking entertainment
  • Inadequate regulation
  • Lack of parental supervision over children’s Internet use or their computer activities.
  • To boost their egos.
  • To entertain themselves and their friends.
  • To get attention.
  • Some do it because people around them are doing it as well.

Effects of Cyber bullying

Psychological Impacts

  • Victims of cyberbullying are likely to experience Anxiety, Depression, and the feeling of low self esteem
  • Low confidence
  • More susceptible to developing Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.
  • Developing thoughts about suicide and harming oneself.
  • Constant feeling of fear and stress
  • Feeling ashamed, nervousness, anxious and insecurity regarding what people say or think about you.

Physical Impacts

  • Headaches
  • Stomach aches and sleeping problems

Social Impacts

  • Victims of Cyberbullying are at higher risk of being marginalised and stigmatised by society.
  • They might feel ashamed or embarrassed about the harassment, leading them to avoid social activities and relationships.
  • Social isolation.
  • Their peers might not accept them.
  • They do not easily trust other people and are always suspicious of others.
  • For adult: could able to go for work and could not do the routine work

Academic Impacts

  • They struggle to fit in at school and perform poorly academically.
  • Drop in grades
  • Skips school.
  • Gets into trouble at school
  • Loses interest in School
  • Avoid going to school.

(Pradhan, 2023)

Possible signs of cyber bullying

  • Mentally – Feeling upset after messaging or being on the internet, embarrassed, stupid, even afraid or angry most of the time, low self-esteem, reluctant to talk or secretive about their online activities and mobile phone use.
  • Emotionally – feeling ashamed or losing interest in the things you love, feeling upset after using the internet or their mobile phone, anger and irritable.
  • Physically – tired (loss of sleep), or experiencing symptoms like stomach aches and headaches.

Socially- Avoiding formerly enjoyable social situations, not wanting to go to school and/or avoiding meeting friends and school mates, significant increase or decrease in time spent in texting, gaming or using social media.

Internet safety for children

  • Be careful what pictures or videos you upload.
  • Only add people you know and trust to friends/followers lists online.
  • When talking to strangers, keep your personal information safe and location hidden.
  • Keep your password to yourself and change it regularly.
  • Block or report someone who is behaving badly.
  • Do not reply to offending e-mails, text messages or online conversations.
  • Always keep a copy of offending e-mails, text messages or a screen grab of online conversation
  • Make sure you tell an adult you trust, for example, a parent, a carer, a teacher, or the anti-bullying co-ordinator or call a helpline.
  • Do not share your last name, home address, school name or telephone number. You don’t know how the person will use your information.
  • While creating screen name, do not include personal information like your last name or date of birth.
  • Do not share your passwords with anyone and when you use a public computer, make sure your logout of the accounts you have accessed before leaving the terminal.
  • Do not agree to meet an online friend, until you have your parents’ permissions sometimes people pretend to be someone and turb out to be someone else and they recognize the people better.
  • Do not buy anything online without talking to your parents first. Some ads may try to trick you by offering free things as a way of collecting your personal information.
  • Talk to your parents before you open an email attachment or download software as the attachments sometimes might contain virus and make sure not to open an attachment from someone you don’t know.
  • Make sure that you have control over who can access your information online by activating and improving privacy setting on all your social media accounts.
  • Keep in mind that when you use a public internet connection, you cannot know how secure it is. It is best to avoid doing any online banking, sharing sensitive information while using public Wi-Fi.

How can the parents keep their children internet safe?

  • Monitor child’s social media use.
  • Being involved and talking to children. Once a picture is shared online it cannot be taken back.
  • Remind your children that they never know who they really are. They might seem friendly, but because you can’t see them in real life, it is best to be careful.
  • Advise them to never share their email or social media password with anyone, even their best friend.
  • Help them determine what is and is not appropriate to share online.
  • Set hours and limit access to using technology online.
  • Create a code of conduct for your children, such as they will not use social media to humiliate or embarrass other people, even if they are being targeted by cyberbullying.
  • Establish that if your child experiences cyberbullying and shares that with you, their use and access to technology won’t be restricted. However, if your child demonstrates cyberbullying behavior and you find out, identify consequences for your child.
  • If your child is being bullied online, be supportive of your child. Let them know that you will work together to take steps to stop bullying.

How can the Teachers keep the children internet safe?

  • Promote a positive and safe classroom culture. Provide resources in the classroom to help students identify, respond to, and avoid cyberbullying.
  • Step up when you encounter a teachable moment related to cyberbullying or respectful online communication,
  • Encourage students to pay attention to “red flag moments”—when something happens on digital media that makes them feel uncomfortable, worried, sad, or anxious.
  • Explain to students the three ways they can and should respond if they witness cyberbullying: support the target of the bullying (be an ally); try to stop the cyberbullying (be an upstander); and/or tell a trusted adult (report it). It may not be part of your lesson plan, and it may set you off track for a bit, but every time you reinforce anti-cyberbullying messages, you’re doing the critical work of cyberbullying prevention.
  • Incorporate lessons on cyberbullying into your existing curriculum.
  • Talk to parents if encountered any inappropriate cyberbullying.

How can the Adult keep themselves internet safe and reduce the cyberbullying?

  • Make sure you are up to date with the privacy settings. Social media regularly update their privacy options. Stay informed about these changes.
  • Limit access of your contact details. Avoid sharing your email or phone number with unfamiliar individuals.
  • Avoid sharing inappropriate images or videos. Keep in mind that a current romantic partner could be and ex in the future. So it is essential to prevent the possibility of someone possessing and potentially posting compromising material of you online.
  • Refuse friend or follower requests from unknown individuals. If you are unfamiliar with the person sending the request, simply ignore it.
  • Avoid immediate responses to cyberbullying. Cyber bullies often aim to provoke emotional reactions from their targets. When faced with negative online comments, unappealing photos or tags, or any form of unkind behaviour, consider stepping away from your device for at least an hour. Utilize this time to create emotional distance and carefully contemplate your response.
  • Capture screenshots to document instances of cyberbullying. This method ensures you have a record of any harmful comments or photos.
  • Use reporting and blocking features available on social media platforms to address cyberbullying effectively.

Who helps in Nepal?

  • Child Safe Net

Child safe net has been established with the vision of enhancing the safety of digital technology for children and young individuals. They raise awareness about using the internet and devices safest to protect young people from issues like Internet Addiction, Online sexual abuse, and exploitation, cyberbullying, and gaming addiction, while also promoting digital literacy, since 2018.

  • Nepal Police Cyber Bureau

Toll free Emergency Child Helpline- 1098

Toll free Nepal Police Hotline- 100

Nepal Police Cyber Bureau- 9851286770


Understanding and coping with anxiety and depression

The Health Thread Favicon

Written By THT Editorial Team

Sabina Maharjan

Reviewed by Sabina Maharjan, Clinical Psychologist(M.Phil, IOM TUTH), Bsc Nurse

Anxiety and depression are common mental health issues that affect many people worldwide. According to the World Health Organization, depression is the leading cause of disability worldwide, and anxiety disorders affect approximately 264 million people globally. These conditions can significantly impact an individual’s quality of life, leading to difficulties in relationships, work, and daily activities. Therefore, understanding and coping with anxiety and depression are essential for improving mental health and well-being.

Understanding Anxiety and Depression: Anxiety and depression are different conditions, but they often occur together. Anxiety is a feeling of worry or fear that can be triggered by specific situations or events, whereas depression is a persistent feeling of sadness or a loss of interest in activities that were once enjoyable. Symptoms of anxiety can include restlessness, irritability, difficulty concentrating, and insomnia. Symptoms of depression can include feelings of worthlessness, loss of appetite, fatigue, and suicidal thoughts. This symptoms of anxiety and depression affects their daily functioning routines such as work, education and relationship and persistent more than two weeks.

Coping Strategies for Anxiety and Depression: There are many strategies that individuals can use to cope with anxiety and depression. These strategies include:

Seeking professional help: It’s important to seek help from a mental health professional if you’re experiencing symptoms of anxiety or depression. A therapist can provide counseling and recommend appropriate treatment options, such as medication or cognitive-behavioral therapy.

Practicing relaxation techniques: Relaxation techniques such as deep breathing, meditation, mindfulness and yoga can help reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression by promoting feelings of calm and relaxation.

Engaging in regular physical activity: Regular exercise can help improve mood and reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression. Exercise also helps promote overall physical health and well-being.

Maintaining a healthy diet: Eating a well-balanced diet with plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains can help promote overall physical and mental health.

Avoiding alcohol and drugs: Alcohol and drugs can exacerbate symptoms of anxiety and depression and should be avoided.

In Nepal, mental health issues are becoming increasingly recognized as a critical public health concern. However, there is still a significant stigma associated with mental illness in many communities, which can prevent people from seeking help. The government of Nepal has taken steps to improve access to mental health services, including launching a national mental health policy and training health workers to provide mental health services.

In conclusion, anxiety and depression are prevalent mental health conditions that can significantly impact an individual’s quality of life. Coping strategies such as seeking professional help, practicing relaxation techniques, engaging in regular physical activity, maintaining a healthy diet, and avoiding alcohol and drugs can help improve mental health and well-being. In Nepal, there is a growing recognition of the importance of mental health, and efforts are being made to improve access to mental health services.

Building resilience and emotional intelligence

The Health Thread Favicon

Written By THT Editorial Team

Sabina Maharjan

Reviewed by Sabina Maharjan, Clinical Psychologist(M.Phil, IOM TUTH), Bsc Nurse

Building resilience and emotional intelligence are key components of promoting mental health and well-being. Resilience refers to the ability to bounce back from difficult or challenging situations, while emotional intelligence involves understanding and managing one’s own emotions as well as the emotions of others. Here are some strategies for building resilience and emotional intelligence:

i. Practice self-care: Engage in activities that promote physical, emotional, and mental well-being, such as exercise, meditation, or spending time in nature, practicing mindfulness.

ii. Practice positive self-talk: Use positive affirmations to reframe negative thoughts and promote a more optimistic outlook.

iii. Develop problem-solving skills: Learn to identify problems, generate solutions, and implement them in a constructive manner.

iv. Cultivate social connections: Build and maintain positive relationships with family, friends, and colleagues, and seek support when needed.

v. Seek professional help if needed: If you are struggling to cope with stress or mental health issues, seek help from a mental health professional.

By building resilience and emotional intelligence, individuals can better cope with life’s challenges and maintain good mental health.

How does emotional intelligence help in being resilient?

Emotional intelligence refers to the ability to understand and manage one’s own emotions as well as recognize and empathize with the emotions of others. When it comes to building resilience, emotional intelligence can help individuals to better understand and regulate their emotions in the face of adversity. It allows individuals to recognize and name their emotions, which can help them to identify and cope with stressors more effectively.

Emotional intelligence can also improve one’s ability to communicate effectively and build supportive relationships, which can be essential for resilience. By understanding the emotions and needs of others, individuals can develop stronger connections and support networks, which can help them to navigate challenging situations and bounce back from setbacks.

Overall, developing emotional intelligence can be an important tool for building resilience and promoting mental health and well-being.

The importance of social support for mental health

The Health Thread Favicon

Written By THT Editorial Team

Sabina Maharjan

Reviewed by Sabina Maharjan, Clinical Psychologist(M.Phil, IOM TUTH), Bsc Nurse

Social support refers to the help, care, and assistance that people receive from their social networks, such as family, friends, colleagues, and community. Social support plays a crucial role in promoting and maintaining mental health and well- being. Here are some important aspects of social support for mental health:

1. Emotional support: Emotional support involves providing care, comfort, and empathy to someone who is going through a difficult time. It helps people feel understood, validated, and less alone in their struggles.

2. Practical support: Practical support includes providing tangible assistance, such as help with daily tasks, transportation, or financial support. It can help reduce stress and alleviate practical burdens, allowing people to focus on their mental health needs.

3. Informational support: Informational support involves providing advice, guidance, and information about available resources and services that can help people manage their mental health.

4. Social connection: Social connection is a key aspect of social support, as it provides opportunities for people to connect with others, share experiences, and build meaningful relationships. This can help reduce feelings of loneliness, isolation, and disconnection.

The absence of social support can have a negative impact on mental health, increasing the risk of developing mental health problems such as anxiety, depression, and substance abuse. On the other hand, having strong social support can help reduce stress, improve coping skills, and enhance resilience in the face of challenging life events. Therefore, it is important to prioritize social support and build a network of supportive relationships to promote mental health and well- being.

There are several ways in which society can be encouraged to build social support mechanisms for mental health:

1. Education and awareness campaigns: Public education campaigns can be used to raise awareness about the importance of social support for mental health and to provide information about how to access social support resources.

2. Community events and activities: Organizing community events and activities can help to bring people together and build a sense of community, which can provide a support network for those who are struggling with mental health issues.

3. Support groups: Support groups can be a valuable resource for those who are struggling with mental health issues, as they provide a safe and supportive environment where people can share their experiences and offer each other emotional support.

4. Workplace support: Employers can play an important role in promoting social support for mental health by creating a supportive workplace environment and offering resources such as employee assistance programs.

5. Online resources: The internet provides a wealth of resources for people seeking social support for mental health issues. Online support groups, forums, and chat rooms can be a valuable resource for those who may not have access to traditional support networks.

Coping with stress and anxiety

The Health Thread Favicon

Written By THT Editorial Team

Sabina Maharjan

Reviewed by Sabina Maharjan, Clinical Psychologist(M.Phil, IOM TUTH), Bsc Nurse

Stress and anxiety are common experiences that can be caused by a variety of factors, including work, relationships, financial concerns, health issues, and more. Coping with stress and anxiety can be challenging, but there are many effective strategies for managing these emotions.

One way to cope with stress and anxiety is to identify the root cause of the feelings. Once you have identified the source, you can work on addressing it directly or finding ways to manage it. It can also be helpful to practice relaxation techniques, such as deep breathing, meditation, or yoga, which can help calm the mind and reduce feelings of stress and anxiety.

Another effective coping mechanism is to engage in activities that bring you joy and relaxation. This could be anything from reading a book to going for a walk to spending time with friends or family. It’s important to prioritize self-care and make time for activities that help you feel calm and happy.

In some cases, talking to a mental health professional or seeking support from a trusted friend or family member can also be helpful. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a type of therapy that can help individuals identify and change negative thought patterns and behaviors that contribute to stress and anxiety.

Overall, coping with stress and anxiety is about finding a balance between addressing the root cause of the emotions and engaging in self-care activities that promote relaxation and well-being. It’s important to remember that seeking help is a sign of strength, and there are many resources available for those struggling with stress and anxiety.

How to identify the root cause of Feelings?

Identifying the root cause of stress and anxiety can be challenging, but it is an important step in coping with these feelings. One effective way to identify the root cause is to engage in self-reflection and introspection. This involves taking the time to examine your thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, and trying to identify any patterns or triggers that may be contributing to your stress and anxiety.

Another helpful approach is to seek the help of a mental health professional, such as a therapist or counselor. These professionals can provide guidance and support in identifying the underlying causes of stress and anxiety, and can offer strategies for coping and managing these feelings.

In addition, practicing relaxation techniques such as deep breathing, meditation, and yoga can help reduce stress and anxiety in the moment, while also helping to develop a greater sense of self-awareness and emotional resilience over time. Engaging in regular physical exercise, getting enough sleep, and maintaining a healthy diet can also contribute to better mental and emotional health.

Mindfulness and meditation techniques for mental well-being

The Health Thread Favicon

Written By THT Editorial Team

Sabina Maharjan

Reviewed by Sabina Maharjan, Clinical Psychologist(M.Phil, IOM TUTH), Bsc Nurse

Mindfulness and meditation techniques have gained popularity in recent years as a way to improve mental well-being. They are simple practices that can be done anywhere, anytime, and do not require any special equipment or training. Research has shown that practicing mindfulness and meditation can have a positive impact on various mental health conditions, including depression, anxiety, and stress.

One example of a mindfulness technique is mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), which involves paying attention to the present moment and accepting it without judgment. Studies have shown that MBSR can reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression and improve overall well-being (1).

Another example is loving-kindness meditation, which involves generating feelings of love and kindness towards oneself and others. Studies have shown that loving-kindness meditation can increase positive emotions and reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression (2).

In addition to these techniques, there are many other mindfulness and meditation practices that can be beneficial for mental well-being, such as body scan meditation, walking meditation, and yoga. Research has shown that incorporating these practices into daily life can lead to improvements in mood, stress levels, and overall well-being (3).

It is important to note that mindfulness and meditation techniques should not be viewed as a replacement for professional mental health treatment. However, they can be used as a complementary approach to support overall mental well-being.


  • Hofmann SG, Sawyer AT, Witt AA, Oh D. The effect of mindfulness-based therapy on anxiety and depression: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 2010;78(2):169-183.
  • Khoury B, Sharma M, Rush SE, Fournier C. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for healthy individuals: A meta-analysis. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 2015;78(6):519-528.

Supporting loved ones with mental health challenges

The Health Thread Favicon

Written By THT Editorial Team

Dr. Kamal Gautam

Reviewed by Dr. Kamal Gautam, MBBS(KU), MD Psych (IOM), Currently working at Transcultural Psychological Organization Nepal (TPO Nepal)

Supporting loved ones with mental health challenges is an important aspect of mental health and well-being. Recent research has shown that social support can have a significant impact on the mental health of individuals with mental illnesses. A study published in the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology found that providing social support to individuals with mental illnesses can lead to a reduction in symptoms and an overall improvement in their quality of life (Suetani et al., 2021).

Some ways to support loved ones with mental health challenges include:

A. Educate yourself about their condition: Learning about the symptoms and treatment options for your loved one’s mental illness can help you understand their experience and provide more effective support.

B. Be a good listener: Sometimes all your loved one may need is someone to listen to them without judgment or criticism. Try to offer an open ear and show empathy.

C. Encourage treatment: Encouraging your loved one to seek professional treatment can be a difficult conversation, but it is important to express your concern for their well-being and offer support in finding appropriate resources.

D. Offer practical help: Tasks that may seem simple, such as preparing meals or running errands, can be challenging for individuals with mental health issues. Offering practical assistance can be a great way to show support.

E. Avoid stigma and judgment: Mental health stigma and judgment can prevent individuals from seeking treatment and support. Be mindful of your language and avoid using derogatory terms or perpetuating negative stereotypes.

Supporting loved ones with mental health challenges can be a challenging and emotional journey. It is important to remember that you do not have to go through it alone. Seeking out support from a mental health professional, support group, or trusted friend or family member can also be helpful.


  • Suetani, S., Kisely, S., & Siskind, D. J. (2021). The effectiveness of social support interventions for people with severe mental illness: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 89(4), 303-317. doi: 10.1037/ccp0000651

Strategies for improving sleep and mental health

Getting enough high-quality sleep is essential for good mental health and overall well-being. Lack of sleep can lead to irritability, mood swings, difficulty concentrating, and other mental health issues. Here are some strategies for improving sleep and promoting mental health:

Stick to a sleep schedule: Go to bed and wake up at the same time every day, even on weekends.

  •  Create a relaxing bedtime routine: Take a warm bath, read a book, or listen to calming music before bed to help you relax and unwind.
  • Make sure your sleeping environment is comfortable: Your bedroom should be cool, dark, and quiet. Invest in a comfortable mattress, pillows, and bedding.
  • Limit screen time before bed: The blue light emitted by electronic devices can interfere with sleep. Avoid using electronic devices for at least an hour before bedtime.
  • Get regular exercise: Regular exercise can help improve sleep quality and reduce stress and anxiety.
  • Practice relaxation techniques: Deep breathing, meditation, and progressive muscle relaxation are all effective techniques for promoting relaxation and improving sleep.
  • Avoid caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine: These substances can interfere with sleep quality and contribute to mental health issues.

Building resilience for better mental health

Resilience refers to an individual’s ability to cope with and recover from stress and adversity. Building resilience is an important aspect of promoting better mental health and well-being. Here are some ways to build resilience:

Practice mindfulness: Mindfulness is the practice of being present in the moment and paying attention to your thoughts and feelings without judgment. It can help you manage stress, increase self-awareness, and improve mental clarity.

Stay connected: Social support is important for building resilience. Staying connected with friends, family, and community can help you feel supported and reduce feelings of isolation.

Practice self-care: Taking care of yourself is important for building resilience. This includes eating a healthy diet, getting enough sleep, and engaging in regular physical activity.

Develop problem-solving skills: Being able to solve problems effectively can help you feel more in control and better able to cope with adversity. Practice identifying problems and coming up with effective solutions.

Build a positive outlook: Cultivating a positive outlook can help you cope with stress and adversity. Practice gratitude, optimism, and finding the silver lining in difficult situations.

Seek professional help: If you are struggling with anxiety, depression, or other mental health issues, seek professional help. A mental health professional can help you develop coping strategies and provide support.

By building resilience, individuals can improve their mental health and well-being, and better cope with stress and adversity. here are some factors that can contribute to building resilience:

Social support: Having strong relationships with family, friends, or a support group can provide emotional support, encouragement, and a sense of belonging.

Coping strategies: Developing positive coping strategies, such as exercise, mindfulness, or journaling, can help manage stress and anxiety.

Positive mindset: Maintaining a positive outlook on life, focusing on the present moment, and practicing gratitude can help improve mental well-being.

Problem-solving skills: Learning how to solve problems and make effective decisions can help build confidence and resilience.

Self-care: Taking care of physical health by eating a healthy diet, getting enough sleep, and exercising regularly can also positively impact mental health.

These factors can help individuals cope with challenging situations and develop the skills necessary to bounce back from adversity.

Balancing work, family, and mental health: Tips for success

The Health Thread Favicon

Written By THT Editorial Team

Dr. Kamal Gautam

Reviewed by Dr. Kamal Gautam, MBBS(KU), MD Psych (IOM), Currently working at Transcultural Psychological Organization Nepal (TPO Nepal)

Balancing work, family, and mental health can be challenging because each area demands time and attention, and when one area is neglected, it can impact the others. For example, if a person is experiencing stress at work, it can affect their mood and behavior at home, leading to conflicts with family members. Similarly, if a person is experiencing family problems, it can cause stress and distraction at work, leading to decreased productivity.

To prioritize and balance these areas, it’s important to set clear boundaries and communicate them with family members and employers. It’s also important to prioritize self-care, such as engaging in activities that promote mental and physical well-being. This could include exercise, meditation, or hobbies that provide a sense of fulfillment and relaxation.

In addition, it can be helpful to create a schedule or routine that allows for time and attention to be given to each area, while also allowing for flexibility and adaptability when unexpected challenges arise. Seeking support from loved ones and mental health professionals can also be helpful in managing stress and finding a healthy balance.

Here are some tips for success:

  1. Prioritize self-care:Make time for activities that promote relaxation and self-care, such as exercise, meditation, or hobbies that you enjoy.
  2. Set boundaries: It’s essential to set boundaries to avoid burnout. Learn to say no to unnecessary demands and prioritize tasks based on their level of importance.
  3. Communicate effectively: Effective communication is key to balancing work and family life. Clearly communicate your needs and expectations to your colleagues and family members.
  4. Practice time management: Effective time management can help you balance work and family commitments. Prioritize tasks and delegate when necessary.
  5. Seek support:Reach out to friends, family, or mental health professionals for support when needed. Don’t be afraid to ask for help.

By prioritizing self-care, setting boundaries, communicating effectively, practicing time management, and seeking support, you can successfully balance work, family, and mental health.