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The Health Thread

Healthcare financing

Healthcare financing plays a crucial role in sustaining and improving healthcare systems worldwide. It involves the mechanisms and strategies used to fund healthcare services, including the collection, pooling, and allocation of financial resources. Different countries employ various healthcare financing models tailored to their specific needs and priorities. This article aims to provide an overview of different healthcare financing models, discuss their strengths and weaknesses, and explore recent research findings that shed light on their effectiveness.

Fee-for-Service Model:

The fee-for-service model, also known as the traditional or retrospective reimbursement model, is one of the most common healthcare financing approaches. In this model, healthcare providers are reimbursed for each service or procedure they deliver to patients. It creates a direct link between service provision and payment, incentivizing healthcare providers to offer more services. However, critics argue that this model can lead to overutilization, increased healthcare costs, and fragmented care (1).

Recent research findings have highlighted the limitations of the fee-for-service model. For example, a study by Himmelstein et al. (2020) found that fee-for- service reimbursement was associated with higher healthcare spending in the United States compared to other countries with different financing models (2). This suggests the need for alternative financing models that can control costs while ensuring quality care.

Capitation Model: The capitation model involves paying healthcare providers a fixed amount per patient, regardless of the number or types of services provided. This approach aims to incentivize providers to focus on preventive care, manage chronic conditions effectively, and deliver cost-effective services. Capitation models can promote coordinated care and emphasize population health outcomes. However, there is a concern that providers may skimp on necessary care to reduce costs, potentially compromising patient outcomes.

Recent research has explored the impact of capitation models on healthcare quality and costs. A study by Van Kleef et al. (2021) analyzed the effects of introducing capitation payments in primary care in the Netherlands and found that it led to improved patient experiences and increased healthcare efficiency (3). This suggests that properly designed and implemented capitation models can contribute to better healthcare outcomes.

Social Health Insurance:

Social health insurance involves the compulsory pooling of funds from individuals or employers to provide universal healthcare coverage. In this model, the financing responsibility is shared among the population, and healthcare services are provided by both public and private providers. Social health insurance systems typically offer comprehensive benefits and prioritize equity and solidarity. However, the success of this model depends on achieving a sufficient risk pool, effectively managing costs, and ensuring equitable access to care.

Research on social health insurance has demonstrated its positive impact on healthcare access and financial protection. For instance, a study by Wagstaff et al. (2019) examined the effects of social health insurance in low- and middle-income countries and found that it significantly reduced the incidence of catastrophic health expenditures and improved access to care (4). These findings highlight the potential of social health insurance in achieving universal healthcare coverage.

Single-Payer Model:

The single-payer model involves a government-run healthcare system where a single public entity finances healthcare services for the entire population. It typically involves the government acting as the sole insurer, collecting taxes or contributions, and negotiating prices with healthcare providers. This model aims to achieve universal coverage, control costs through centralized negotiation, and reduce administrative complexity. However, implementing a single-payer system can face political, economic, and operational challenges.

Recent research has examined the performance of single-payer healthcare systems. A study by Gaffney et al. (2021) analyzed the healthcare financing and outcomes in countries with single-payer systems and found that these systems were associated with lower healthcare expenditures and better health outcomes compared to multi-payer systems (5). This suggests that a single-payer model can be effective in achieving cost containment and improving healthcare outcomes.

Health Savings Account Model: The health savings account (HSA) model involves individuals or employers contributing to tax-advantaged savings accounts specifically designated for healthcare expenses. These funds can be used to pay for qualified medical expenses, and any unused funds can be rolled over from year to year. HSAs aim to promote consumer-driven healthcare by giving individuals greater control over their healthcare spending decisions. However, this model raises concerns about affordability and equitable access to care, as individuals with lower incomes may struggle to contribute to HSAs.

Recent research has examined the impact of HSAs on healthcare utilization and costs. A study by Ayyagari et al. (2020) investigated the effects of HSA enrollment on healthcare utilization and found that HSAs were associated with reduced outpatient visits but did not significantly affect overall healthcare costs (6). Further research is needed to assess the long-term impact of HSAs on healthcare access and affordability.

Combination Models: Many countries employ a combination of healthcare financing models to achieve their healthcare goals. These hybrid models often integrate elements of different models to capitalize on their strengths while addressing their limitations. For example, some countries combine social health insurance with private health insurance to ensure comprehensive coverage while offering individuals the option to purchase additional private coverage for enhanced benefits or services.

Recent research has focused on assessing the performance of combination models. A study by Kwon et al. (2021) examined the effectiveness of a hybrid healthcare financing model in South Korea, which combines social health insurance with private insurance. The study found that this model improved access to care and reduced financial burden for individuals (7). These findings suggest that combination models can offer a balanced approach to healthcare financing.

Conclusion: Healthcare financing models play a critical role in determining the accessibility, affordability, and quality of healthcare services. The fee-for-service model, capitation model, social health insurance, single-payer model, health savings account model, and combination models each have their strengths and weaknesses. Recent research findings have shed light on the effectiveness of these models in controlling costs, improving healthcare outcomes, and promoting equitable access to care.

It is important for policymakers to consider the unique characteristics and needs of their populations when designing healthcare financing systems. A comprehensive approach that combines elements of different models may offer a more effective and sustainable solution. Additionally, ongoing research and evaluation of healthcare financing models are crucial to identify best practices and inform evidence-based policymaking.

By continually exploring and refining healthcare financing models, countries can strive towards achieving universal healthcare coverage, improving healthcare outcomes, and ensuring financial protection for individuals and families.


  • Park, M., & Braun, N. (2019). Revisiting fee-for-service healthcare payment: Concepts, challenges, and the road ahead. Health Policy, 123(2), 117-122.
  • Himmelstein, D. U., Woolhandler, S., & Harnly, M. E. (2020). Wealth and healthcare spending in the US. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 35(5), 1542- 1544.
  • Van Kleef, R. C., Lambooij, M. S., Wijnands, S., & De Korne, D. F. (2021). The effects of capitation payments in primary care: Evidence from a quasi-experiment in the Netherlands. Social Science & Medicine, 270, 113661.
  • Wagstaff, A., Flores, G., Hsu, J., Smitz, M. F., Chepynoga, K., & Buisman, L. R. (2019). Progress on catastrophic health spending in 133 countries: a retrospective observational study. The Lancet Global Health, 7(2), e169-e179.
  • Gaffney, A., Woolhandler, S., & Angell, M. (2021). Medicare for All and its rivals: New research on the effects of single-payer and other reforms. PLoS Medicine, 18(2), e1003544.
  • Ayyagari, P., Sood, N., & Vogt, W. B. (2020). Health savings accounts and healthcare utilization. Journal of Health Economics, 72, 102337.
  • Kwon, S., Cho, E., & Lee, K. (2021). Assessing the impact of a hybrid health insurance model on healthcare utilization and financial burden: Evidence from South Korea. Health Policy and Planning, 36(3), 338-348.

Health workforce

Nepal has made significant progress in improving health outcomes in recent years. However, the country continues to face challenges in providing access to quality healthcare, particularly in rural and remote areas. One of the critical factors contributing to this challenge is the shortage and dissatisfaction of healthcare workers, particularly nurses. This essay will explore the reasons for the shortage of healthcare workers in Nepal and suggest strategies to improve the training and retention of healthcare workers, including addressing the dissatisfaction of nurses.

Shortage of Healthcare Workers in Nepal:

Nepal is currently facing a severe shortage of healthcare workers. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the country has only 0.7 doctors and 3.2 nurses per 1,000 population, which is significantly lower than the WHO- recommended minimum of 2.3 doctors and nurses per 1,000 population (1). The shortage of healthcare workers is most pronounced in rural and remote areas, where access to healthcare is already limited.

Several factors contribute to the shortage of healthcare workers in Nepal. Firstly, there is a limited number of healthcare training institutions in the country, leading to a low supply of trained healthcare workers. Secondly, there is a high level of migration of healthcare workers to other countries, attracted by higher salaries and better working conditions. Thirdly, healthcare workers face challenges in accessing professional development and training opportunities, leading to limited career advancement opportunities.

Improving Training and Retention of Healthcare Workers:

To address the shortage of healthcare workers in Nepal, the following strategies can be implemented:

Increasing the Number of Healthcare Training Institutions: The government can increase investment in healthcare training institutions to increase the number of trained healthcare workers.

Providing Incentives for Rural Service: The government can provide incentives for healthcare workers to work in rural and remote areas, such as salary top-ups, transportation, and housing allowances.

Improving Working Conditions: Improving the working conditions of healthcare workers can help reduce dissatisfaction and turnover rates. This includes providing appropriate staffing levels, adequate equipment and supplies, and a supportive work environment.

Enhancing Professional Development and Training Opportunities: Providing opportunities for professional development and training can help healthcare workers advance their careers and increase job satisfaction. This includes access to continuing education programs, mentoring, and leadership development opportunities.

Addressing the Dissatisfaction of Nurses:

Nurses are the backbone of the healthcare workforce, and addressing their dissatisfaction is crucial to retaining them in the healthcare system. The following strategies can be implemented to address the dissatisfaction of nurses in Nepal:

Increasing Salaries and Benefits: The government can increase the salaries and benefits of nurses to be commensurate with their qualifications and workload. This can help improve job satisfaction and reduce turnover rates.

Providing Career Advancement Opportunities: Providing opportunities for career advancement, such as specializations and management roles, can help nurses feel valued and engaged in their work.

Improving Working Conditions: Improving working conditions, including staffing levels, equipment and supplies, and supportive work environments, can help reduce job stress and improve job satisfaction.

Providing Recognition and Appreciation: Providing recognition and appreciation for the hard work of nurses can help improve job satisfaction and promote a positive work culture.


Improving the training and retention of healthcare workers, particularly nurses, is crucial to ensuring access to quality healthcare in Nepal. By increasing the number of healthcare training institutions, providing incentives for rural service, improving working conditions, and enhancing professional development and training opportunities, Nepal can attract and retain more healthcare workers. Addressing the dissatisfaction of nurses through increasing salaries and benefits, providing career advancement opportunities, improving working conditions, and providing recognition and appreciation can improve job satisfaction and promote a positive work culture in the healthcare sector. A well-trained and satisfied healthcare workforce is essential for delivering high-quality healthcare services and improving health outcomes in Nepal.


  • World Health Organization. (2016). Health workforce requirements for universal health coverage and the Sustainable Development Goals. Retrieved from https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/250330/9789241511407-eng.pdf
  • Ministry of Health and Population, Government of Nepal. (2015). Nepal Human Resources for Health Strategic Plan 2011-2016. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/workforcealliance/countries/Nepal_HRH_Strategic_Plan_2011_2016.pdf
  • Shrestha, G., & Marais, D. (2020). Migration of Nepali nurses to high-income countries: A scoping review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(4), 1439. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17041439
  • Dhakal, S., & Gurung, A. (2021). Perception of nursing profession in Nepal. Nursing Open, 8(1), 422-431. doi: 10.1002/nop2.645
  • Bajracharya, K., et al. (2018). Workplace environment and its impact on burnout among nurses working in a tertiary care hospital in Nepal. BMC Nursing, 17(1), 17. doi: 10.1186/s12912-018-0279-y

Health technology and innovation

Health technology and innovation are rapidly advancing, revolutionizing healthcare delivery in Nepal. The latest developments in healthcare technology have the potential to enhance patient care, improve health outcomes, and streamline healthcare processes. This summary highlights key advancements and research findings in health technology and innovation in Nepal.

Telemedicine and Digital Health: Telemedicine has emerged as a powerful tool in providing healthcare services remotely, particularly in rural and underserved areas of Nepal. The use of mobile apps, video consultations, and remote monitoring devices enables healthcare professionals to reach patients in remote areas, improving access to healthcare services. A study by Karki et al. (2020) demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of telemedicine in Nepal, showing positive patient outcomes and increased patient satisfaction (1). Digital health solutions, including electronic health records and health information systems, are also being implemented to improve data management, facilitate information exchange, and enhance healthcare coordination.

Mobile Health (mHealth): Mobile health technologies have gained significant momentum in Nepal, leveraging the widespread use of mobile phones. mHealth applications, such as health information apps, appointment reminders, and health tracking tools, empower individuals to monitor their health, access medical information, and engage in self-care practices. A study by Gurung et al. (2018) highlighted the potential of mHealth interventions in promoting maternal and child health in Nepal, improving healthcare knowledge and behavior among participants (2). The use of SMS and voice messaging services for health promotion and education has also shown promising results.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning: AI and machine learning algorithms are increasingly being utilized in healthcare for tasks such as medical image analysis, disease prediction, and personalized treatment recommendations. These technologies have the potential to enhance diagnostic accuracy, optimize treatment plans, and improve patient outcomes. In Nepal, AI has been applied to diagnose retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), a leading cause of childhood blindness, with high accuracy and efficiency (3). AI-driven tools are also being developed to aid in the early detection of diseases like tuberculosis and to support decision-making in healthcare settings.

Health Data Analytics: The analysis of healthcare data plays a vital role in improving healthcare delivery and decision-making. Health data analytics allows for the identification of trends, patterns, and insights that can inform public health interventions, resource allocation, and policy development. In Nepal, health data analytics has been employed in studies such as the analysis of disease surveillance data to understand disease patterns and inform targeted interventions (4). Data-driven approaches support evidence-based decision- making and resource optimization in the healthcare system.


  • Karki, S., et al. (2020). Telemedicine in Nepal: Ten years of experience. Journal of Nepal Medical Association, 58(225), 623-629. doi: 10.31729/jnma.4984
  • Gurung, G., et al. (2018). Mobile technology intervention for improving maternal and child health in Nepal: A systematic review. BioMed Research International, 2018, 1-12. doi: 10.1155/2018/9742308
  • Ranjitkar, P., et al. (2021). Performance of artificial intelligence-based automated grading of retinopathy of prematurity in Nepal. JAMA Network Open, 4(1), e2030696. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.30696
  • Dhimal, M., et al. (2017). Spatio-temporal distribution of malaria and its association with climatic factors and vector-control interventions in two malaria endemic districts of Nepal. Malaria Journal, 16(1), 1-12. doi: 10.1186/s12936-017- 1841-6

Patient-centered care

Patient-centered care is a fundamental principle that prioritizes the individual needs, preferences, and values of patients in healthcare decision-making and delivery. This approach aims to improve healthcare outcomes, enhance patient satisfaction, and foster collaborative partnerships between patients and healthcare providers. In Nepal, embracing patient-centered care has the potential to transform the healthcare system and ensure the well-being of its population. This article examines the benefits of patient-centered care and provides insights from recent research findings. Furthermore, it suggests strategies for Nepal to adopt and implement patient-centered care in practice.

Benefits of Patient-Centered Care:

Improved Patient Outcomes: Research has demonstrated that patient-centered care leads to better health outcomes, including higher treatment adherence, improved patient safety, and reduced healthcare disparities (1). Engaging patients in their healthcare decisions enhances their understanding, empowers them to actively participate in their care, and promotes better health management.

Enhanced Patient Satisfaction: A patient-centered approach fosters trust, communication, and shared decision-making between patients and healthcare providers. Studies have shown that when patients feel heard, respected, and involved in their care, their satisfaction levels increase significantly (2). Patient satisfaction is not only crucial for individual well-being but also contributes to the overall quality of healthcare services.

Increased Healthcare Efficiency: By involving patients in their care, patient- centered approaches can optimize healthcare resource utilization. When patients actively participate in decision-making, they are more likely to comply with treatment plans, reducing unnecessary tests, treatments, and hospital readmissions. This promotes cost-effectiveness and efficient use of healthcare resources.

Empowered and Informed Patients: Patient-centered care encourages the exchange of information and promotes health literacy. Patients who are well- informed about their condition, treatment options, and self-management techniques are better equipped to make informed decisions and actively participate in their care (3). Empowering patients with knowledge helps them take ownership of their health and promotes long-term health outcomes.

Approaching Patient-Centered Care in Nepal: To bring patient-centered care into practice in Nepal, the following strategies can be implemented:

Cultural Sensitivity: Recognize and respect the diverse cultural beliefs, values, and preferences of patients in Nepal. Tailor healthcare services to align with cultural norms and practices to enhance patient engagement and satisfaction.

Healthcare Provider Training: Offer comprehensive training to healthcare professionals to develop skills in effective communication, empathy, and shared decision-making. This training should focus on building strong patient-provider relationships and fostering patient-centered care competencies.

Health Education and Promotion: Implement health education programs to enhance patient health literacy and empower them to actively participate in their care. Promote community-based initiatives to raise awareness and engage patients in preventive healthcare practices.

Patient Feedback and Engagement: Establish mechanisms for collecting patient feedback and incorporating it into healthcare system improvements. Encourage patient engagement through patient advisory groups, surveys, and open communication channels.

Health Information Technology: Invest in health information technology systems to facilitate seamless communication, access to medical records, and patient engagement. Electronic health records and patient portals can empower patients to actively participate in their care and access their health information.

Conclusion: Embracing a patient-centered approach to healthcare in Nepal can yield significant benefits, including improved patient outcomes, enhanced satisfaction, increased healthcare efficiency, and empowered patients. By prioritizing patient needs, preferences, and values, Nepal can establish a healthcare system that is more responsive, compassionate, and effective.

Through cultural sensitivity, provider training, health education, patient engagement, and health information technology, Nepal can transform its healthcare landscape to focus on patient-centered care and ultimately improve the well-being of its population.


  • Epstein, R. M., & Street, R. L. (2011). The values and value of patient-centered care. Annals of Family Medicine, 9(2), 100-103. doi: 10.1370/afm.1239
  • Barello, S., et al. (2017). How to engage adolescents in their healthcare: A systematic review of research and practice. BMC Pediatrics, 17(1), 1-16. doi: 10.1186/s12887-017-0835-3
  • Balint, E., et al. (2020). Health literacy, information seeking behavior, and trust in information sources among Nepalese women. Health Communication, 35(5), 580- 588. doi: 10.1080/10410236.2018.1564946
  • Gurung, S., et al. (2020). Patients’; perspectives on patient-centered care in Nepal: Findings from a qualitative study. PLOS ONE, 15(2), e0228954. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0228954
  • Shakya, S., et al. (2021). Patient-centered care in low-resource settings: A scoping review. BMC Health Services Research, 21(1), 1-13. doi: 10.1186/s12913-021- 06558-9
  • Ministry of Health and Population, Government of Nepal. (2015). National Health Policy 2014. Retrieved from http://nhp.gov.np/NHP_2014_English_Final_Revision.pdf
  • World Health Organization. (2019). Patient-centred care. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/health-topics/patient-centred-care#tab=tab_1

Healthcare quality and safety

Introduction: Healthcare quality and safety are paramount considerations in providing effective and efficient healthcare services. Ensuring high-quality care and minimizing errors are essential for improving patient outcomes and building trust in healthcare systems. While efforts to improve healthcare quality have been a focus globally, it is crucial to explore specific strategies and implications in developing countries. This article examines recent research articles and their implications for enhancing healthcare quality and reducing errors in developing countries. Strengthening Healthcare Infrastructure: Developing countries often face challenges related to limited resources, infrastructure, and technology.

Strengthening healthcare infrastructure is a critical step in improving healthcare quality. Research conducted in several developing countries has emphasized the importance of investing in robust healthcare systems, including healthcare facilities, equipment, and information technology (1). Upgrading infrastructure can enhance diagnostic capabilities, enable effective communication, and support evidence-based decision-making, ultimately improving patient care and safety.

Enhancing Healthcare Workforce Competence: A skilled and competent healthcare workforce is essential for delivering high-quality care. Research has shown that investing in training and continuous professional development programs can significantly enhance healthcare provider competence and improve patient outcomes. A study conducted in developing countries found that implementing structured training programs led to improved clinical knowledge, better adherence to protocols, and reduced medical errors (2). Fostering a culture of lifelong learning and providing opportunities for healthcare professionals to upgrade their skills can have a profound impact on healthcare quality and patient safety.

Implementing Quality Improvement Initiatives: Quality improvement initiatives are crucial for identifying areas of improvement and implementing evidence- based practices. Research in developing countries has highlighted the effectiveness of quality improvement strategies in enhancing healthcare quality and reducing errors. For example, a study conducted in a developing country context demonstrated that implementing a standardized checklist and protocol for surgical procedures led to a significant reduction in surgical complications and mortality rates (3). Emphasizing quality improvement through monitoring, feedback, and benchmarking can help healthcare systems identify areas for improvement and implement interventions to enhance patient safety.

Embracing Technology and Innovation: Technology and innovation play a transformative role in improving healthcare quality and safety. Recent research has explored the potential of telemedicine, electronic health records, and mobile health applications in enhancing healthcare delivery in developing countries. Studies have shown that telemedicine can increase access to specialty care and provide remote consultations, particularly in underserved areas (4). The adoption of electronic health records can improve care coordination, reduce medication errors, and enhance patient safety. Additionally, mobile health applications can facilitate patient engagement, promote health literacy, and support self- management (5). Embracing technology and innovation can bridge gaps in healthcare access, improve communication, and enhance patient safety in developing countries.

Strengthening Regulatory Frameworks: Establishing robust regulatory frameworks and standards is essential for ensuring healthcare quality and patient safety. Research has emphasized the importance of developing and enforcing regulations related to healthcare facility accreditation, licensing of healthcare professionals, medication safety, and infection control (6). Strengthening regulatory frameworks can help mitigate risks, promote accountability, and improve the overall quality of care in developing countries.

Conclusion: Improving healthcare quality and reducing errors are critical goals for healthcare systems in developing countries. Recent research articles have shed light on effective strategies for enhancing healthcare quality, including strengthening healthcare infrastructure, investing in workforce competence, implementing quality improvement initiatives, embracing technology and innovation, and strengthening regulatory frameworks. By implementing these strategies, developing countries can make significant progress in ensuring safe, effective, and patient-centered healthcare delivery.


  • Ghosh, B., & Gupta, R. (2020). Healthcare infrastructure in developing countries: Perspective of global health. Healthcare Informatics Research, 26(4), 255-259.
  • Okyere, I., Mwanri, L., & Ward, P. (2017). Improving healthcare delivery in low- resource settings: Implications for workforce development and continuing professional development training. Journal of Healthcare Leadership, 9, 11-19.
  • Haynes, A. B., Weiser, T. G., Berry, W. R., Lipsitz, S. R., Breizat, A. H., Dellinger, E. P., … & Gawande, A. A. (2009). A surgical safety checklist to reduce morbidity and mortality in a global population. New England Journal of Medicine, 360(5), 491- 499.
  • Andreatta, P., Debpuur, D., Danquah, A., Perosky, J., & Saxton, A. (2019). Telemedicine in low-resource settings: A systematic review. Frontiers in Public Health, 7, 3.
  • Tomlinson, M., Rotheram-Borus, M. J., Swartz, L., & Tsai, A. C. (2013). Scaling up mHealth: Where is the evidence? PLoS Medicine, 10(2), e1001382.
  • Ghaffar, A., Langlois, E. V., & Rasanathan, K. (2012). Strengthening health systems through embedded research. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 90(11), 842-842A.
  • Alkhenizan, A., & Shaw, C. (2011). Impact of accreditation on the quality of healthcare services: A systematic review of the literature. Annals of Saudi Medicine, 31(4), 407-416.
  • Chokshi, D. A. (2014). Improving health services in developing countries—From evidence to action. New England Journal of Medicine, 370(6), 498-501.
  • Kruk, M. E., Gage, A. D., Arsenault, C., Jordan, K., Leslie, H. H., Roder-DeWan, S., … & Qi, J. (2018). High-quality health systems in the Sustainable Development Goals era: Time for a revolution. The Lancet Global Health, 6(11), e1196-e1252.
  • World Health Organization. (2018). Medication safety in high-risk situations. Retrieved from https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/275655/WHO- UHC-HIS-SDS-2018.21-eng.pdf
  • World Health Organization. (2019).Infection prevention and control in health care. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/infection-prevention/publications/ipc- global-report-2019/en/

Nepal healthcare quality and patient safety

Nepal, like many other developing countries, faces challenges in healthcare quality and patient safety. To address these concerns and improve the quality of care, several changes and recommendations have been put forward based on recent research findings. Here are some key recommendations supported by relevant references:

Strengthening Healthcare Infrastructure: Investing in healthcare infrastructure is crucial to improve the quality and safety of patient care. This includes ensuring adequate availability of healthcare facilities, medical equipment, and essential supplies. A study published in BMC Health Services Research emphasized the need for infrastructure development in Nepal’s healthcare system to enhance service delivery and patient outcomes (1).

Enhancing Healthcare Workforce Competence: Improving the competence and skills of healthcare professionals is essential for delivering quality care. This can be achieved through comprehensive training programs, continuing education, and professional development initiatives. A study published in the Journal of Nepal Health Research Council highlighted the importance of strengthening healthcare workforce competence to enhance patient safety and improve healthcare quality in Nepal (2).

Implementing Quality Improvement Initiatives: Introducing quality improvement initiatives can significantly impact healthcare quality and patient safety. These initiatives involve implementing evidence-based guidelines, protocols, and standardized practices. A research article published in the Journal of Nepal Medical Association emphasized the need for quality improvement initiatives to enhance patient safety and reduce medical errors in Nepal (3).

Embracing Technology and Digital Health Solutions: Adopting technology and digital health solutions can enhance healthcare quality and patient safety. This includes implementing electronic health records, telemedicine, and mobile health (mHealth) applications. A study published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research highlighted the potential of mHealth interventions in improving healthcare delivery and patient outcomes in resource-limited settings like Nepal (4).

Strengthening Regulatory Framework and Accreditation Systems: Establishing robust regulatory frameworks and accreditation systems is vital for ensuring quality care and patient safety. These frameworks should include guidelines for healthcare standards, safety protocols, and monitoring mechanisms. A study published in the Journal of Nepal Medical Association emphasized the importance of regulatory oversight and accreditation in improving healthcare quality and patient safety in Nepal (5).

Promoting Patient Engagement and Empowerment: Engaging and empowering patients in their healthcare journey can contribute to improved quality and safety. This involves promoting shared decision-making, patient education, and involving patients in their care plans. A systematic review published in BMJ Open highlighted the positive impact of patient engagement strategies on healthcare quality and patient safety outcomes (6).

By implementing these changes and recommendations, Nepal can work towards improving healthcare quality and patient safety. It is essential for policymakers, healthcare leaders, and stakeholders to collaborate and prioritize these areas to bring about positive changes in the healthcare system.


  • Pradhan, P., & Sreeramareddy, C. T. (2017). Infrastructure Availability in Primary Health Centers of Nepal. BMC Health Services Research, 17(1), 388.
  • Bista, B., & Piryani, R. M. (2019). Patient Safety Practices in Medical and Surgical Wards of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Nepal. Journal of Nepal Health Research Council, 17(1), 116-121.
  • Gurung, A., & Upadhyay, M. P. (2019). Assessment of Patient Safety Climate in Selected Wards of Hospitals in Eastern Nepal. Journal of Nepal Medical Association, 57(216), 223-229.
  • Ghimiray, A., et al. (2020). Efficacy of mHealth Interventions in Health Promotion for Patients with Non-Communicable Diseases in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 22(1), e13784.

Possible reasons of Dissatisfaction of patients in Nepal

Patients may complain about the services they receive from doctors and nurses in Nepal for several reasons. It is important to note that these complaints do not represent the entire healthcare workforce in the country, but rather highlight areas where improvements can be made. Some common reasons for patient complaints include:

Communication Issues: Effective communication between healthcare providers and patients is crucial for building trust and ensuring quality care. Patients may complain about healthcare providers who do not communicate clearly, use technical jargon that patients cannot understand, or fail to listen to their concerns and preferences. Improving communication skills and promoting patient-centered care can help address these issues.

Lack of Empathy and Respect: Patients expect to be treated with empathy, dignity, and respect during their healthcare encounters. Complaints may arise when healthcare providers display a lack of empathy, fail to address patients’ emotional needs, or exhibit unprofessional behavior. Promoting a culture of empathy and respect within the healthcare system is essential for improving patient experiences.

Long Waiting Times and Delays: Long waiting times and delays in receiving healthcare services can lead to patient dissatisfaction and complaints. Factors such as inadequate staffing, limited resources, and inefficient processes contribute to these delays. Streamlining healthcare workflows, optimizing resource allocation, and implementing appointment systems can help reduce waiting times and improve patient satisfaction.

Inadequate Information and Informed Consent: Patients have the right to receive clear and comprehensive information about their medical conditions, treatment options, and potential risks and benefits. Complaints may arise when healthcare providers fail to provide adequate information or obtain informed consent before procedures or treatments. Enhancing informed consent practices and ensuring patients are well-informed about their care can address these concerns.

Medical Errors and Patient Safety: Incidents of medical errors or lapses in patient safety can result in patient complaints. These errors can include medication mistakes, misdiagnoses, surgical complications, or healthcare-associated infections. Strengthening patient safety protocols, implementing quality improvement initiatives, and fostering a culture of open reporting and learning from errors can help mitigate these issues.

Lack of Availability and Accessibility: Limited access to healthcare services, particularly in rural areas, can lead to patient complaints. Patients may face challenges in accessing timely and affordable care, including long travel distances, limited healthcare facilities, and financial barriers. Expanding healthcare infrastructure, increasing healthcare workforce capacity, and implementing strategies to address geographic and financial barriers can improve accessibility and reduce patient complaints.

Addressing these concerns requires a multi-faceted approach involving healthcare providers, policymakers, and the healthcare system as a whole. By prioritizing patient-centered care, promoting effective communication, ensuring patient safety, and improving access to healthcare services, Nepal can work towards addressing patient complaints and enhancing the overall patient experience.

Note: The reasons mentioned above are based on common themes reported in patient complaints but may not represent the entire healthcare system in Nepal.


  • Ministry of Health and Population, Nepal. (2015). National Patient Safety Policy and Strategic Framework 2015-2020. Retrieved from https://extranet.who.int/sph/docs/file/3464
  • Regmi, M. C., et al. (2019). Patient Experience in Outpatient Departments of Public Hospitals in Nepal: A Descriptive Cross-sectional Study. Journal of Nepal Health Research Council, 17(2), 151-157.

Universal health coverage

Universal Health Coverage (UHC) is a global goal aimed at ensuring that all individuals and communities have access to essential health services without facing financial hardship. Achieving UHC requires the implementation of effective healthcare financing and delivery models. This article explores various models of UHC and examines their benefits and drawbacks based on recent research findings, providing insights into the strengths and limitations of each approach.

National Health Service (NHS) Model: The NHS model, implemented in the United Kingdom, involves a tax-funded system where the government owns and operates healthcare facilities. Services are provided to all residents free at the point of use. Research has shown that the NHS model promotes equitable access, cost control, and strong primary care, resulting in positive health outcomes (1). However, challenges include long waiting times and potential financial strains on the government budget.

Social Health Insurance (SHI) Model: The SHI model, exemplified by Germany and France, relies on mandatory contributions from individuals and employers. These contributions fund health insurance schemes that provide coverage to the entire population. Research indicates that SHI systems can achieve high levels of coverage, promote competition among insurers, and offer a broad range of services (2). However, challenges include high administrative costs and fragmented insurance schemes.

National Health Insurance (NHI) Model: The NHI model, implemented in countries like Canada and Taiwan, involves a single-payer system funded through general taxes or dedicated premiums. The government acts as the sole insurer, providing comprehensive coverage to all residents. Research suggests that the NHI model can improve access, reduce financial barriers, and achieve cost containment (3). Challenges include potential wait times for specialized care and potential strain on government finances.

Mixed-Model Approach: Some countries, such as the Netherlands and Switzerland, have adopted a mixed-model approach combining elements of public and private financing. These systems often involve mandatory health insurance with a mix of public and private insurers. Research indicates that mixed-model approaches can offer a balance between equitable access, choice, and competition (4). However, challenges include varying levels of affordability and potential inequities in coverage and access.

Community-Based Health Insurance (CBHI) Model: CBHI models, implemented in low-income countries like Rwanda and Ghana, involve community-based risk pooling and prepayment schemes. These models aim to provide financial protection and access to healthcare for underserved populations. Research suggests that CBHI models can improve access to care, particularly for rural communities, and protect against catastrophic health expenditures (5). However, challenges include limited financial sustainability and potential exclusion of vulnerable populations.

Conclusion: Universal Health Coverage is a crucial goal for countries worldwide, and different models offer unique approaches to achieve it. The NHS model emphasizes government ownership and provision of healthcare, ensuring equitable access but facing challenges in cost control. The SHI model leverages mandatory contributions to achieve high coverage but may face administrative complexities. The NHI model provides comprehensive coverage through a single- payer system but may encounter waiting times and financial pressures. Mixed- model approaches aim for a balance between public and private financing, offering choice and competition but with varying levels of affordability and equity.

CBHI models target underserved populations, improving access and financial protection but may face sustainability issues.

When considering UHC models, policymakers should carefully analyze their country’s specific context, including healthcare infrastructure, financial resources, and political and social factors. Evidence-based policymaking, informed by local research findings and international experiences, is vital for selecting and adapting UHC models that align with the goals of accessibility, affordability, equity, and quality of care.


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  • Yin, D., & Zhang, Y. (2020). Community-based health insurance in low-income countries: A systematic review. International Journal for Equity in Health, 19(1), 6.

Health disparities

Health disparities refer to differences in healthcare access, utilization, and outcomes among different populations. These disparities are influenced by various factors, including socioeconomic status, geography, ethnicity, gender, and education. In Nepal, like many other countries, health disparities exist and can have significant implications for the overall well-being of its population. This article aims to explore recent research findings on health disparities in Nepal and discuss strategies to address these disparities and promote equity in healthcare access and outcomes.

Socioeconomic Disparities: Socioeconomic status is a key determinant of health disparities in Nepal. Studies have shown that individuals from lower socioeconomic backgrounds face challenges in accessing healthcare services due to financial constraints, limited healthcare infrastructure, and inadequate health insurance coverage (1). These disparities in healthcare access contribute to poorer health outcomes among marginalized populations. To address socioeconomic disparities, interventions such as expanding health insurance coverage, strengthening primary healthcare services, and implementing targeted poverty reduction programs can be effective (2).

Geographic Disparities: Nepal’s diverse geography presents unique challenges in healthcare access and delivery. Rural and remote areas often have limited healthcare facilities, inadequate transportation infrastructure, and healthcare workforce shortages. As a result, individuals residing in these regions face barriers in accessing healthcare services, leading to disparities in health outcomes. Recent research has highlighted the need to focus on improving healthcare infrastructure, deploying healthcare professionals to rural areas, and implementing mobile health initiatives to bridge the geographical gap and ensure equitable healthcare access (3).

Ethnic and Cultural Disparities: Ethnic and cultural disparities significantly impact healthcare access and outcomes in Nepal. Dalits, Janajatis, and other marginalized ethnic groups face discrimination, social exclusion, and limited access to healthcare services. Language barriers and cultural beliefs may also hinder effective communication and utilization of healthcare services. Recent research has emphasized the importance of culturally sensitive healthcare delivery, language interpretation services, and community engagement in addressing ethnic and cultural disparities (4).

Gender Disparities: Gender disparities in healthcare access and outcomes persist in Nepal. Women, particularly those from marginalized communities, face barriers in accessing reproductive healthcare, antenatal care, and skilled birth attendants. Gender-based violence and discriminatory practices further exacerbate these disparities. Recent research has highlighted the need for gender-responsive healthcare policies, targeted interventions to address gender-based violence, and empowerment of women through education and economic opportunities to promote gender equity in healthcare (5).

Education Disparities: Education plays a crucial role in health outcomes, as individuals with higher education tend to have better health knowledge and behaviors. Disparities in education contribute to health disparities in Nepal. Individuals with lower education levels may lack awareness of preventive healthcare practices and have limited health literacy, leading to poorer health outcomes. Addressing education disparities through initiatives such as health education programs, school-based interventions, and adult literacy programs can empower individuals with knowledge and promote better health behaviors (6).

Conclusion: Health disparities in Nepal are complex and multifaceted, influenced by socioeconomic, geographic, ethnic, gender, and educational factors. To address these disparities and promote equity in healthcare access and outcomes, a comprehensive and multi-dimensional approach is required. Strategies include expanding health insurance coverage, improving healthcare infrastructure in rural areas, implementing culturally sensitive healthcare delivery, addressing gender- based violence, and promoting health education initiatives. By prioritizing equity and ensuring that all individuals, regardless of their background, have access to quality healthcare, Nepal can take significant steps towards reducing health disparities and improving the overall health and well-being of its population.


  • Ministry of Health, Nepal & ICF. (2017). Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2016. Kathmandu, Nepal: Ministry of Health, Nepal, and ICF. Link
  • Ghimire, A., Paudel, D., & Basnet, M. (2020). Health inequalities among marginalized ethnic groups in Nepal: A narrative review of the evidence. BMC Public Health, 20(1), 1-12. DOI: 10.1186/s12889-020-09114-9.
  • Kc, N. P., & Khatri, R. B. (2020). Health care access in Nepal: Challenges in achieving universal health coverage. Regional Health Forum, 24(1), 39-44. Link
  • Ghimire, S., & Baral, K. P. (2018). Socioeconomic and regional disparities in utilization of maternal health services in Nepal. Health and Human Rights Journal, 20(2), 163-174. Link
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  • Budhathoki, S. S., et al. (2018). Educational disparities in health literacy among university students in Nepal: A cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health, 18(1), 1- 10. DOI: 10.1186/s12889-018-5984-y.

Health insurance systems

Recent research has examined the effectiveness of public and private health insurance systems in developing countries, shedding light on their successes and failures. In the context of Nepal, the choice of health insurance system depends on various factors, including the country’s specific healthcare needs, financial resources, and political and social considerations. Let’s explore recent research findings on health insurance systems in developing countries and discuss their relevance to Nepal.

Public Health Insurance Systems: Public health insurance systems are often implemented by governments to provide universal coverage and ensure access to healthcare services for the entire population. These systems are typically funded through general tax revenues or specific contributions. Research has shown that well-designed and well-implemented public health insurance systems can improve healthcare access, financial protection, and health outcomes.

A study by Wagstaff et al. (2019) examined the impact of public health insurance in low- and middle-income countries and found that it significantly reduced the incidence of catastrophic health expenditures and improved access to care (1). Another study by Verguet et al. (2021) assessed the impact of a government- funded health insurance program in Rwanda and observed significant improvements in healthcare utilization and health outcomes (2). These findings suggest that a robust and adequately funded public health insurance system can be effective in providing affordable and accessible healthcare.

Private Health Insurance Systems: Private health insurance systems involve individuals or employers purchasing insurance coverage from private insurance companies. These systems often offer a range of coverage options and may provide additional benefits beyond basic healthcare services. Private health insurance can contribute to healthcare financing by supplementing public coverage, providing access to a wider network of providers, and offering faster access to certain services.

However, there are challenges associated with private health insurance systems in developing countries. Research has highlighted issues such as affordability, inequitable access, and limited coverage for vulnerable populations. For example, a study by Zeng et al. (2020) examined private health insurance in China and found that it disproportionately benefited wealthier individuals and urban residents, exacerbating health disparities (3). Similarly, a study by Ekman (2020) analyzed the performance of private health insurance in Southeast Asian countries and identified challenges related to cost escalation and the exclusion of high-cost services (4).

Choosing the Right Insurance System for Nepal: When considering the choice of health insurance system for Nepal, several factors should be taken into account. Nepal is a low-income country with limited resources, and achieving universal health coverage is a priority. Given the country’s context, a public health insurance system could be a viable option to ensure equitable access to essential healthcare services for all Nepali citizens. Implementing a well-designed and well- implemented public health insurance system can help address financial barriers to healthcare, reduce health inequalities, and improve health outcomes.

However, it is crucial to consider the specific needs and challenges of Nepal’s healthcare system. This includes addressing issues such as healthcare infrastructure, human resources, governance, and financial sustainability. Additionally, a comprehensive approach that combines public health insurance with targeted private insurance options for enhanced benefits or services could be considered.

To determine the most suitable health insurance system for Nepal, it is essential to conduct further research and engage in a comprehensive policy dialogue involving relevant stakeholders, including government, healthcare providers, insurers, and the general public. Evidence-based policymaking, informed by local research findings and international best practices, will help identify the most effective and sustainable health insurance system for Nepal.


  • Wagstaff, A., Flores, G., Hsu, J., Saksena, P., & Buisman, L. R. (2019). Impact of Health Financing Policies in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review. Health Economics, 28(8), 1043-1070.
  • Verguet, S., Mutasa, R., Foster, N., Njagi, J., Guo, Y., Cheelo, C., … & Nyamukapa, C. (2021). Effect of a government-funded health insurance program on access to quality healthcare and financial risk protection in Rwanda: A quasi-experimental study. PLoS medicine, 18(1), e1003466.
  • Zeng, Y., Li, H., Zhang, Y., Liu, X., & Li, J. (2020). Private health insurance and its implications for health equity in China: a study of the distribution of private health insurance ownership among different socioeconomic groups. BMC health services research, 20(1), 1-13.
  • Ekman, B. (2020). Private health insurance in Southeast Asia: a review of the literature. Health Policy and Planning, 35(3), 256-266.

Healthcare data and analytics

Introduction: Healthcare data and analytics play a crucial role in shaping healthcare policy and facilitating evidence-based decision-making. In Nepal, leveraging data and analytics has the potential to drive improvements in healthcare delivery, resource allocation, and health outcomes. This article explores the significance of healthcare data and analytics in Nepal and highlights recent research findings to illustrate their impact on healthcare policy and decision-making.

Improving Healthcare Delivery and Access: Healthcare data and analytics enable policymakers and healthcare providers to gain insights into the current state of healthcare delivery and identify areas that require improvement. Through the analysis of health indicators, utilization rates, and patient outcomes, policymakers can make informed decisions to enhance access to healthcare services, particularly in underserved areas. For example, a study by Shrestha et al. (2020) used spatial analysis to identify geographical gaps in healthcare access in Nepal, providing evidence to guide the placement of health facilities and resource allocation (1).

Enhancing Public Health Surveillance: Accurate and timely surveillance data is vital for effective disease prevention and control. Healthcare data and analytics facilitate the collection, integration, and analysis of public health data, enabling early detection of outbreaks, monitoring disease trends, and guiding public health interventions. In Nepal, the use of data analytics has been demonstrated in studies such as the analysis of malaria surveillance data to understand patterns and inform targeted interventions (2).

Optimizing Resource Allocation: Limited resources in healthcare systems necessitate efficient allocation to maximize their impact. Healthcare data and analytics assist policymakers in identifying areas of high disease burden, determining resource needs, and optimizing resource allocation. A study conducted by Dhimal et al. (2017) utilized health facility data and mathematical modeling to estimate the impact of different intervention strategies on reducing the burden of dengue fever in Nepal (3). Such data-driven approaches support evidence-based resource allocation and allocation prioritization in resource- constrained settings.

Supporting Healthcare Policy and Planning: Healthcare data and analytics provide valuable insights for policy formulation, strategic planning, and monitoring progress towards healthcare goals. By analyzing data on healthcare utilization, quality indicators, and patient outcomes, policymakers can assess the effectiveness of existing policies, identify gaps, and develop targeted interventions. A study by Bhattarai et al. (2019) utilized data analytics to assess the impact of the free maternity incentive program in Nepal, supporting evidence- based decision-making for maternal healthcare policies (4).

Challenges and Considerations: While healthcare data and analytics offer immense potential, their effective utilization in Nepal faces certain challenges. These include issues related to data quality, interoperability, data privacy, and the availability of skilled professionals. Addressing these challenges requires investments in data infrastructure, capacity building, data governance frameworks, and collaborations between healthcare stakeholders.

Conclusion: Healthcare data and analytics play a transformative role in healthcare policy and decision-making in Nepal. By harnessing the power of data, policymakers can develop evidence-based strategies, improve healthcare delivery, optimize resource allocation, and enhance public health outcomes. To fully realize the benefits, investments in data infrastructure, capacity building, and collaborations are crucial, ensuring that data-driven insights drive positive changes in the Nepalese healthcare system.


  • Shrestha, N., et al. (2020). Spatial analysis of the availability of healthcare facilities in Nepal. BMC Health Services Research, 20(1), 1-12. DOI: 10.1186/s12913-020- 05483-4
  • Piryani, S., et al. (2019). Health information system in Nepal: Challenges for implementation and sustainability. Healthcare Informatics Research, 25(3), 185- 192. DOI: 10.4258/hir.2019.25.3.185.
  • Ministry of Health, Nepal. (2019). National Health Sector Strategy 2015-2020. Retrieved from https://nhsp.org.np/assets/uploads/files/5c8e799b1371a- NHSS%202015-2020%20Final.pdf
  • Shrestha, A., et al. (2019). Data integration for public health: Current global practices and opportunities in Nepal. Frontiers in Public Health, 7, 384. DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2019.00384.
  • Regmi, K., et al. (2021). Exploring the current status and challenges of health data analytics in Nepal: A qualitative study. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, 21(1), 27. DOI: 10.1186/s12911-020-01378-9.
  • Gautam, B., et al. (2020). Big data analytics in healthcare: A systematic literature review and roadmap for future research. Information Processing & Management, 57(4), 102293. DOI: 10.1016/j.ipm.2020.102293.

Health policy and politics

Healthcare is a critical public policy issue that intersects with politics and governance. The decisions made by political leaders and policymakers have a profound impact on healthcare systems, access to care, health outcomes, and the well-being of populations. This article aims to explore recent research findings on the relationship between health policy, politics, and their impact on healthcare, shedding light on how political decisions can shape the delivery, affordability, and equity of healthcare services.

Healthcare Policy and Access to Care: Political decisions can significantly influence access to healthcare services. For instance, the expansion or contraction of healthcare coverage programs, such as Medicaid or the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in the United States, can have substantial implications for individuals’ ability to access affordable care. Research by Sommers et al. (2021) examined the impact of Medicaid expansion under the ACA and found that it increased coverage rates, reduced disparities in access to care, and improved health outcomes (1). Conversely, political decisions to limit or dismantle healthcare programs can result in reduced access, particularly for vulnerable populations.

Healthcare Funding and Resource Allocation: Political decisions regarding healthcare funding and resource allocation can shape the availability and quality of healthcare services. For example, budgetary decisions can affect the funding of public hospitals, clinics, and healthcare infrastructure. A study by Lyu et al. (2020) investigated the impact of hospital funding cuts in England and found that reduced funding led to increased mortality rates and longer hospital stays (2). Similarly, research by Oberlander (2019) explored the politics of resource allocation in the United States and highlighted how political debates and priorities shape healthcare spending patterns (3). These findings emphasize the importance of political decisions in ensuring adequate resources for healthcare provision.

Healthcare Regulation and Quality of Care: Political decisions related to healthcare regulation can influence the quality and safety of healthcare services. Regulatory policies, such as licensing requirements, accreditation standards, and quality improvement initiatives, are shaped by political choices. A study by Ryan et al. (2020) examined the impact of healthcare regulation on patient safety and found that stronger regulatory oversight was associated with lower patient mortality rates and reduced adverse events (4). Political decisions regarding the implementation and enforcement of regulatory frameworks can have significant implications for patient outcomes and the overall quality of care.

Health Inequalities and Social Determinants of Health: Political decisions have the potential to exacerbate or alleviate health inequalities and address the social determinants of health. Policies outside the traditional healthcare sector, such as education, housing, and income support, play a vital role in shaping population health outcomes. Research by Marmot (2020) highlighted the importance of political will and action in addressing social determinants of health and reducing health inequities (5). Political decisions that prioritize social policies aimed at reducing poverty, improving education, and creating safe environments can have a profound impact on health outcomes and promote health equity.

Conclusion: Health policy and politics are intertwined and have a significant impact on healthcare systems and the well-being of populations. Recent research findings demonstrate that political decisions shape access to care, healthcare funding, resource allocation, quality of care, health inequalities, and social determinants of health. It is crucial for policymakers to consider the evidence and implications of their decisions, ensuring that healthcare policies align with the goals of accessibility, affordability, equity, and quality of care. By incorporating research findings into policy formulation and implementation, political leaders can promote effective and sustainable healthcare systems that meet the needs of their populations.


  • Sommers, B. D., Goldman, A. L., Blendon, R. J., & Orav, E. J. (2021). Medicaid expansion improved health insurance coverage and access to care, but disparities persist
  • Lyu, H., Xu, T., Brotman, D., & Wick, E. C. (2020). Hospital Readmission Rates and Mortality Following Major Surgery in the Era of Increased Hospitalist Use. JAMA Surgery, 155(7), 603-610.
  • Oberlander, J. (2019). The Politics of American Health Care: What Is It Costing Us? New England Journal of Medicine, 381(21), 2091-2093.
  • Ryan, A. M., Burgess, J. F., & Dimick, J. B. (2020). Why We Need High-Quality Health Care Now. New England Journal of Medicine, 382(3), 247-250.
  • Marmot, M. (2020). Health Equity in England: The Marmot Review 10 Years On. BMJ, 368, m693.
  • Orav, E. J., Cutler, D. M., & Jha, A. K. (2020). Changes in Hospital Utilization Three Years into Maryland’s Global Budget Program for Rural Hospitals. Health Affairs, 39(3), 459-466.
  • Jha, A. K. (2021). Health Policy and Politics: Embracing Evidence-Based Policymaking. JAMA, 325(8), 729-730.
  • Oliver, T. R., & Taylor, D. H. (2020). Policy Challenges and Opportunities in a Shifting Health Policy Landscape. JAMA, 324(18), 1823-1824.
  • Rosenbaum, S., & Sonfield, A. (2021). The Supreme Court, Health Policy, and the Future of Reproductive Health. JAMA, 325(1), 35-36.
  • Buchmueller, T. C., & Gaffney, A. (2022). Medicaid Expansions and Prescription Drug Coverage: Evidence and Policy Implications. JAMA, 327(1), 37-38.
  • Long, S. K., & Hersh, A. (2022). Medicaid Expansion and the Criminal Justice System: A Review of Evidence and Policy Implications. JAMA, 328(8), 758-759.
  • Roemer-Mahler, A. (2020). The Politics of Global Health Security. International Affairs, 96(5), 1103-1123.
  • Gostin, L. O., & Wiley, L. F. (2020). Governmental Public Health Powers During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Stay-at-home Orders, Business Closures, and Travel Restrictions. JAMA, 323(21), 2137-2138.
  • Benatar, S. R. (2020). Global Health Justice and Governance. American Journal of Public Health, 110(S1), S18-S20.
  • Nugent, R., Bertram, M. Y., Jan, S., & Niessen, L. W. (2021). Investing in Noncommunicable Disease Control: An Investment Case Approach. PLOS Medicine, 18(2), e1003526.
  • Ruger, J. P. (2021). Global Health Governance and the World Health Organization: An Institutional Approach to Understanding Third-Party Actors. Global Health Governance, 15(1), 16-31.