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Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a severe, often fatal illness caused by the Ebola virus. The disease was first identified in 1976 in Sudan and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and is primarily spread through contact with bodily fluids of infected animals or humans. Outbreaks of EVD have occurred intermittently in several countries in Africa, with the largest outbreak in West Africa from 2014-2016 (1). Understanding the causes, prevention, and management of EVD is essential to effectively control its spread.

Causes of EVD:

EVD is caused by the Ebola virus, a member of the Filoviridae family. The virus is primarily transmitted through contact with bodily fluids, such as blood, vomit, or feces, of infected humans or animals. The virus can also be transmitted through direct contact with contaminated surfaces or objects (2).

Prevention of EVD:

Preventative measures play a crucial role in controlling the spread of EVD. Some examples of preventative measures include:

Avoiding contact with wild animals: Direct contact with bats, monkeys, or other wild animals should be avoided as they may be carriers of the Ebola virus (3).

Proper infection control measures: Healthcare workers should use appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) when caring for EVD patients and follow strict infection control measures, including proper handling of contaminated materials and disposal of medical waste (4).

Safe burial practices: Proper handling and burial of infected bodies can help prevent the spread of EVD. Bodies of deceased patients should be handled by trained professionals and buried in a safe and dignified manner (5).

Vaccination: An effective vaccine for EVD has been developed, and vaccination has been shown to be effective in preventing the disease (6).

Management of EVD:

Early identification and management of EVD cases are critical to prevent further transmission. Some examples of management approaches include:

Isolation and supportive care: Patients with suspected or confirmed EVD should be isolated and provided with supportive care, including fluid and electrolyte replacement, management of complications, and treatment of any underlying medical conditions (7).

Contact tracing: Identifying and monitoring individuals who have come into contact with confirmed or suspected EVD cases is essential for preventing further transmission (8).

Use of experimental therapies: Several experimental therapies have been developed for the treatment of EVD, including monoclonal antibodies and antiviral drugs. These therapies are still under investigation, and their efficacy and safety need further evaluation (9).


EVD is a severe disease with a high mortality rate, and preventative measures play a crucial role in controlling its spread. Avoiding contact with wild animals, practicing proper infection control measures, safe burial practices, and vaccination are some of the key preventative measures. Early identification and management of EVD cases, including isolation, supportive care, contact tracing, and use of experimental therapies, are essential for effective management of the disease. By following evidence-based practices and guidelines, communities can work towards reducing the impact of EVD outbreaks.