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Written By THT Editorial Team

Dr. Asmita Pandey

Reviewed by Dr. Asmita Pandey, Fertility Expert , M.D. (OB/GYN) 

Endometriosis is a disorder where endometrial-like tissue forms outside the uterine cavity, causing chronic pelvic discomfort, intense menstrual pain, dyspareunia, and potential infertility (Parasar et al. 2017). This ectopic endometrial tissue can adversely affect a woman’s reproductive health. While treatments focus on symptom relief and enhancing life quality, endometriosis remains incurable. (Malvezzi et al. 2020).

Symptoms of Endometriosis: Endometriosis manifests as ectopic tissue growth resembling the uterine lining, leading to symptoms that can profoundly affect a woman’s well-being. Notable symptoms include:

Dysmenorrhea: Affected women may suffer from debilitating cramps during menstruation, often radiating to the abdomen or back, surpassing typical menstrual discomfort. (Chauhan et al.2022)

Pain during Intimacy: The condition may result in pain during or following sexual activity, causing considerable distress. (Chauhan et al. 2022)

Painful Excretory Functions: Pain may occur during bowel movements or urination, especially coinciding with menstrual periods. (Mayo Clinic, 2024)

Menorrhagia or Metrorrhagia: There may be unusually heavy flows during periods or bleeding between cycles, disrupting the regular menstrual pattern. (Chauhan et al. 2022)

Infertility: Often linked to infertility, endometriosis might be identified in fertility assessments for women struggling to conceive. (Bulun et al. 2019)

Fatigue: Persistent tiredness or exhaustion can interfere with daily routines and affect overall health.

Additional Symptoms: Other possible symptoms include mood disorders, low body weight, increased pain sensitivity, and irregular spotting or bleeding outside of menstrual cycles.

Approaches to Managing Endometriosis:

Analgesics: Medications such as NSAIDs, including ibuprofen, and analgesics like paracetamol, are utilized to alleviate endometriosis-related discomfort.

Endocrine Therapy: This strategy involves reducing estrogen levels to diminish endometriosis lesions and lessen discomfort. Treatment modalities encompass oral contraceptives, progestins, and GnRH analogs.  (Bulun et al. 2019)

Operative Interventions: Selective surgery, often via laparoscopy, aims to excise endometriosis lesions while retaining reproductive organs, potentially enhancing fertility prospects. (Chauhan et al. 2022)

Reproductive Assistance: In cases of endometriosis-induced infertility, options such as surgical lesion removal, ovarian stimulation coupled with IUI, and IVF are explored. (Lee et al. 2020)

It’s crucial to recognize that treatment choices hinge on various personal factors, including age, symptom intensity, reproductive aspirations, and personal preferences. While these interventions aim to mitigate symptoms and elevate life quality, they are not curative. Engaging in a dialogue with a medical professional is vital to tailor treatment plans to one’s unique health profile.

For further information on endometriosis treatment options and considerations, please refer to the provided sources or book consultations here.


  1. Parasar P, Ozcan P, Terry KL. Endometriosis: Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Clinical Management. Curr Obstet Gynecol Rep. 2017 Mar;6(1):34-41. doi: 10.1007/s13669-017-0187-1. Epub 2017 Jan 27. PMID: 29276652; PMCID: PMC5737931.
  2. Malvezzi H, Marengo EB, Podgaec S, Piccinato CA. Endometriosis: current challenges in modeling a multifactorial disease of unknown etiology. J Transl Med. 2020 Aug 12;18(1):311. doi: 10.1186/s12967-020-02471-0. PMID: 32787880; PMCID: PMC7425005.
  3. Chauhan S, More A, Chauhan V, Kathane A. Endometriosis: A Review of Clinical Diagnosis, Treatment, and Pathogenesis. Cureus. 2022 Sep 6;14(9):e28864. doi: 10.7759/cureus.28864. PMID: 36225394; PMCID: PMC9537113.
  4. Bulun SE, Yilmaz BD, Sison C, Miyazaki K, Bernardi L, Liu S, Kohlmeier A, Yin P, Milad M, Wei J. Endometriosis. Endocr Rev. 2019 Aug 1;40(4):1048-1079. doi: 10.1210/er.2018-00242. PMID: 30994890; PMCID: PMC6693056.
  5. Mayo Clinic. (2024). Endometriosis – Symptoms and causes. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/endometriosis/symptoms-causes/syc-20354656
  6. Lee D, Kim SK, Lee JR, Jee BC. Management of endometriosis-related infertility: Considerations and treatment options. Clin Exp Reprod Med. 2020 Mar;47(1):1-11. doi: 10.5653/cerm.2019.02971. Epub 2020 Feb 24. Erratum in: Clin Exp Reprod Med. 2020 Jun;47(2):153. PMID: 32088944; PMCID: PMC7127898.